Omega 3 Testing
Measures percentages of omega-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA as a potential indicator of various health risks.
DHA Testing
Indicates whether mothers are providing adequate DHA levels to their infants through breastfeeding.
Hair Cortisol Analysis
Provides a complementary method of monitoring stress and cortisol exposure in the body over longer periods of time.
IgG Food Sensitivity
A valuable tool often used to help design elimination diets for patients with several chronic conditions.
Hair Mineral Analysis
Provides the basis for a nutritional balancing program to establish and maintain optimal levels of wellness.

Serum iron and copper and their relations to hepatocellular carcinoma in porphyria cutanea tarda and hemochromatosis patients

Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) and hemochromatosis (HC) are genetically determined metabolic disorders in which liver damage of various grades (steatosis, fibrosis, hepatitis, and/or cirrhosis) frequently occurs. In hemochromatosis there is an inherited defect of iron metabolism, but iron metabolism disturbances may also be found in PCT. Hepatic iron overload is a characteristic feature of the diseases [2]. It is well known that cirrhotic patients with PCT or HC have an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Several studies have suggested that hepatic iron accumulation in both diseases induces hepatic injury, which might be directly involved in cirrhosis and liver cancer development. The liver is a major target organ of injury in iron overload diseases, reflecting its central role in iron storage and metabolism. It has been suggested, that cirrhosis itself represents a preneoplastic condition, this concept being confirmed by many authors. But some cases of HCC have been reported in patients with PCT or HC, but without cirrhosis. It seems possible that iron may act as a direct carcinogen in the onset of HCC, but contrary data have also been published. Siersema et al. [8] did not find any relationship between elevation of serum iron or ferritin concentration and occurrence of HCC in PCT patients. The mechanisms by which excess iron exerts its carcinogenic effects include, e.g., enhancement of oxidative stress, modulation of immune system, facilitation of tumor cell growth and reduction of human antioxidative defense forces. This depends on the antioxidant status of the patients, including the activity of superoxide dismutase, which contains copper and may be inhibited by iron. In HCC tissue the copper content, as well as superoxide dismutase activity is lowered [5], but serum copper levels in cirrhotic patients with or without HCC do not differ significantly [7]. On the other hand, copper itself is highly prooxidative, and extensive damage due to the action of active oxygen species is a well-known consequence of copper accumulation in Wilson’s disease. In our opinion, the true role of copper in the status of iron overloaded patients is not definitely known and additional studies should be carried out for its elucidation.

Ewa Dabrowska, Irena Jabłonska-Kaszewska, Jerzy Łukasiak, Agnieszka Dorosz and Bogdan Falkiewicz (BioFactors 11 (2000) 131–134)