Omega 3 Testing
Measures percentages of omega-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA as a potential indicator of various health risks.
DHA Testing
Indicates whether mothers are providing adequate DHA levels to their infants through breastfeeding.
Hair Cortisol Analysis
Provides a complementary method of monitoring stress and cortisol exposure in the body over longer periods of time.
IgG Food Sensitivity
A valuable tool often used to help design elimination diets for patients with several chronic conditions.
Hair Mineral Analysis
Provides the basis for a nutritional balancing program to establish and maintain optimal levels of wellness.

Metal ions binding to NAD-glycohydrolase from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus: Regulation of multicatalytic activity

AA-NADase from Agkistrodon acutus venom is a unique multicatalytic enzyme with both NADase and AT(D)Pase activities. Among all identified NADases, only AA-NADase contains Cu2+ ions that are essential for its multicatalytic activity. In this study, the interactions between divalent metal ions and AA-NADase and the effects of metal ions on its structure and activity have been investigated by equilibrium dialysis, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and HPLC. The results show that AA-NADase has two classes of Cu2+ binding sites, one activator site with high affinity and approximately six inhibitor sites with low affinity. Cu2+ ions function as a switch for its NADase activity. In addition, AA-NADase has one Mn2+ binding site, one Zn2+ binding site, one strong and two weak Co2+ binding sites, and two strong and six weak Ni2+ binding sites. Metal ion binding affinities follow the trend Cu2+ 4 Ni2+ 4 Mn2+ 4 Co2+ 4 Zn2+, which accounts for the existence of one Cu2+ in the purified AA-NADase. Both NADase and ADPase activities of AA-NADase do not have an absolute requirement for Cu2+, and all tested metal ions activate its NADase and ADPase activities and the activation capacity follows the trend Zn2+ 4 Mn2+ 4 Cu2+ B Co2+ 4 Ni2+. Metal ions serve as regulators for its multicatalytic activity. Although all tested metal ions have no obvious effects on the global structure of AA-NADase, Cu2+- and Zn2+-induced conformational changes around some Trp residues have been observed. Interestingly, each tested metal ion has a very similar activation of both NADase and ADPase activities, suggesting that the two different activities probably occur at the same site.

Xiaolong Xu, Liyun Zhang, Zhaofeng Luo, Dengke Shen, Hao Wu, Lili Peng, Jiajia Song and Yan Zhang (Metallomics, 2010, 2, 480–489)